The Most Common Mistakes US Companies Make in Entering the Chinese Market and How to Avoid Them

China is one of, if not the, most exciting emerging market in our world today. Several industries have taken hold in the Chinese market including automotive and telecommunication products and services. While China presents U.S. companies with many great opportunities, it also presents challenges that can make or break the success of a company’s entry. Common misconceptions and mistakes U.S. companies make in moving into China include:

1. Targeting China as one big market

One major error many individuals make is to assume that China is one market; China is NOT one big market. Why not? For 3 reasons:

I. It has over 600 cities. The existing distribution network and infrastructure do not support a product launch simultaneously cross the country

II. The living standard varies from city to city. The average per capita income is about USD 6000. A premium price product seems too expensive in a small city, but it does not seem too expensive in mega-cities like Beijing and Shanghai with much higher per capita income

III. There are distinctions in its culture, cuisines, dialects, climate, buying habits and more

When you introduce a premium product, targeting China as one market will dilute your efforts, if not drain you of resources altogether. You must first identify where viable markets exist within China. For example, you may need to focus on the upper-middle and upper classes of China with larger disposable incomes or perhaps you wish to target a segment of the population who consumes more of one good or product (e.g. a tomato-based food product will perform better if targeted to northern China given that the cuisine in this region uses significantly more tomato-based products in its dishes).

2. Implementing a U.S. marketing strategy in China’s market

One of the most common mistakes U.S. companies make is to take their U.S. marketing strategy and use it cookie-cutter style-copy and paste the strategy into the Chinese market. Big mistake. Different markets, different strategies. One example may be a U.S. company attempting to distribute spirits through grocery stores in China may have little to no success (versus wild success here in the U.S.) given that most spirits in China are consumed in restaurants. Understanding the context of our industry across cultures is crucial to developing a sustainable and effective marketing strategy.

3. Acting without market research

China is a very different market than U.S. in that your success in China depends on your understanding of your unique market. You must first thoroughly understand your market in order to develop a full marketing strategy. Competition in China may look vastly different from your competition here in the states. Marketing across regions in China should vary to match the unique culture and focus of that particular population. Stepping blindly into the Chinese market can be a major downfall for many.

4. Being unwilling to localize the product

It is rare that a product appropriate for U.S market is perfect for a new market; you must modify a product to make sure you’re serving your new market as best you can otherwise your success may be short-lived. Moving your product or service to China is much more than a simple re-packaging process. In China, most, if not all, companies would benefit from localization. Understand your local Chinese consumers and they will value you. For example, Hunt’s spaghetti sauce is sold in 26.5 ounce jars in the U.S. In contrast, this same product is sold in 4.4 ounce jars in China which accurately reflects the smaller family size of Chinese households.

If you exhaust your U.S. market opportunities and feel rushed into stepping into a new market simply to churn sales, slow down and complete your due diligence. Doing so will save you money and time and will produce greater success in the long run.

5. Failing to clarify and verify validity of your reasons to export

A high-end skin care company has an excess of inventory. They never export in the past, but they are looking for ways to liquidate their products by exporting to China. They begin investing money and people resources to making the shift; however they fail to realize that imported beauty products are highly regulated in China and no buyer in China is willing to move through the compliance filing for one-time transaction. Clarify why you wish to export, what your goals are in exporting to China, and how you might handle any bumps you may anticipate in exporting your product or service.

6. Plan to do everything on your own

If your organization has never exported and worked with companies in foreign countries, there is a huge chance that you will make costly and irreversible mistakes along the way. Map out your critical unknowns and the potential impact each might have on our success. Make sure to speak with a sufficient number of individuals regarding your decision such that you are prepared with knowledge and resources required to succeed in a foreign market.

Why Chinese Factories Are Number One?

Chinese factories are the world’s major manufacturing source and the companies who use made in China products enjoy great profits. A recent study reveals that the world is using just a fraction of the China’s capabilities. Companies around the world need to broaden their exposure to Chinese products in order to successfully utilize the opportunities that Chinese manufacturers offer. The advantage of made in China products are many. Manufacturers there are producing everything from clothing to footwear to pharmaceuticals to agriculture chemicals. And these products are in no way inferior to products manufactured in any other part of the globe. Quality with quantity is the characteristic of Chinese manufacturers.

With an estimated more than 100 million workers, China can deliver quality products at cost effective prices. Global companies also find Chinese factories suitable because of timely and hassle free shipping and customized product development facilities. These factories produce textile and apparel, cement, electronic parts, computers, cell phones, MP3 players, toys, automobile parts, telecommunication equipment and petroleum products. This wide range of products is quite large and is constantly changing and growing to suit the requirements of the world. Right now these factories have everything world companies are looking for in a reliable source of products.

Chinese manufacturers have access to latest technology and probably this is the reason why Chinese factories remain number one in producing world class goods whether it is a television set or mobile phone handset. Tremendous purchasing power and immense import of raw material provides China a considerable cost advantage. This gives Chinese plants a lead in terms of perception of low cost goods. No doubt these cheap but quality products are making markets around the world more competitive and providing customers best in the class. Today China enjoys the position of globe’s manufacturer.

Far from being a threat to world companies, the industrial revolution in China is a fabulous opportunity that can’t be overlooked. Chinese factories are assisting world companies by producing cost effective quality goods. Those who outsource their production to China can focus and can be rest assured that their goods will be delivered well before time. There are companies which specialize in supplying Chinese products. These suppliers take the responsibility of delivering the products directly from factories in China to your doorstep. They have all the means to import made in China goods. This is like China at your doorstep. Just place your order in advance, rest is the job of the supplier.

The United Nations Is Trying To Take Control Of The Internet

Why is the United Nations trying to take control of the Internet? The moment the U.N. is granted control of the Internet, it will be a giant step toward making it an actual global government. The U.N. would like to monitor the Internet’s architecture, traffic flow and security.

Early in December of 2012, a U.N. conference was conducted over a 2 week period in Dubai. This was called the “World Conference on International Telecommunications”. The presiding chairman of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) “surveyed” the assembled countries to find out if they were all in favor of having an increased involvement of the U.N. in regulating the Internet. Even Google mounted a vociferous campaign against the conference’s recommendations for how much they could change everything online.

The Outcome of the Conference

China, Russia and a number of Islamic countries argued that the Internet is an international resource and that it must be governed by a global authority. Repressive regimes like those in these countries don’t thrive in an environment of freedom of speech and liberty. The U.S., Canada, Africa, Europe and a few other countries opposed this. The majority of the other nations supported the proposal, though.

This conference, unfortunately, still established a resolution to open the door for even more discourse over Internet controls. Even though this was supposed to be a “survey” run at that conference, a treaty was instituted late at night by majority rule. This treaty is to come into play in January of 2015. There is still sufficient time for political wrangling between now and then, though.

Before this conference, common citizens were getting into trouble for exercising free speech on the Internet. For instance, four Kuwaitis were jailed for purportedly using Twitter to disapprove of their country’s ruler. Nations have national sovereignty rights to enable them to do the things they each would like internally. The fact that this is already going on in several countries, though, suggests that free speech is not a priority there. However, free speech within this country is supposed to be guaranteed by our Constitution.

Current Policies vs Proposed U.N. Policies

Web addresses like “.com” are distributed freely to anyone. VS A governing body would control website distribution.

Websites can freely send information to the public. VS Websites would have to pay a fee (or tax) per visitor.

Content on a website is not restricted or censored. VS Content regularly reviewed by governing body for approval.

No penalty is imposed upon controversial content. VS Penalties of fines, website removal and jail time enforced.

The Value of the Internet

The Internet is the leading platform for free speech and freedom of expression on earth today. It promotes a free-market system of economics on an international scale. It has made information available in a quick and easy system that is publicly accessible around the world. It has completely changed communications and social networking. It has made education and employment opportunities more available to individuals in most areas of the world.

It is supposed to be an unregulated, international service that operates together with telecom systems which is free of direct interference by any government. The present guidelines that guide website traffic were not established by any government, but rather by programmers worldwide who agreed upon basic concepts.

The Internet has thrived and evolved mainly because it promotes a free and open multi-stakeholder governance system. It has never been centrally governed. Websites succeed with adherence to fundamental principles that result in increased visibilities. Their viewpoints become more renowned since they are presenting content that is current, appealing and original.

Conclusions

The U.N. assault on internet freedom did not end when this conference ended. The debate is still continuing and is centered upon which governing authority has the right to review and regulate the internet. Will it continue to be governed by each nation individually, or will the United Nations take over this responsibility?

If the U.N. achieves it’s objective and then publicly proclaims new regulations, these new policies would then have to be integrated throughout the Internet. Software would have to be modified to deal with these regulations. Internet service providers would need to adjust just how they operate. It would end up being a huge, problematic, expensive and likely even abusive process.

If the U.N. is allowed to acquire control over the Internet, it would be the largest power grab and corruption of its power in the U.N.’s history. Why should anyone even try to fix something which has functioned so well for such a long time and isn’t broken? Why is there now such a big push to have the Internet restricted? Is someone or something trying to control the Internet so that they can control how we think?

Censorship could become the new norm and free-market principles could be threatened. What we don’t want is a set of global treaty agreements that will allow countries to impose even more restrictive conditions upon their people. Freedom of speech is an unalienable right in this country. Let’s just hope and pray that our country’s leaders don’t throw away this right that we have before January of 2015.

Revolutionary World Of Mobile Handsets

Gone are the days when mobile meant making and receiving calls, or text messaging alone. We are in the age where a mobile phone is more of a status quo; it sure decides how boring, interesting, professional or social you are! A mobile phone, especially when it first launched in India, was strictly for reaching people in an emergency situation. But come 2010, none of us have a landline number at home, unless of course our parents insist on having one. We do not even believe in asking our friends and colleagues for their landline numbers anymore, because we are available on our personal cell phone mobile numbers 24*7, any time. Why then would you bother about a landline?

Ever wondered what an amazing device a mobile phone can be and how much it has evolved over the last decade! Not only can your Mobile Handset connect you to the world through calls and SMSes, but you can access websites on your mobile too. There has been a revolution in the world of gadgets, where a mobile phone has become a smart phone. Why do we call it that; because of the extensive features that it can support. You can make a call, send an SMS, surf the internet, download songs and images, send emails, and operate GPS on your handsets, play games, watch videos, set alarms and reminders for important dates and events, check into places on Google maps, et al. Sky is the limit when we talk of mobile today.

Initially when we thought of a mobile phone, it was a synonymous to Nokia Handsets. Our world revolved around the features offered by Nokia and nothing else seemed good enough. Today, there are over a hundred different brands offering mobile handsets in the market, and each one is better than the other. If you were quizzed to think of prominent mobile phone brands, you can remember HTC mobile, BlackBerry, Apple iPhone, Samsung mobile, Sony Ericsson, LG, Videocon, Micromax Mobile, Nokia, Fly, to name a few. But there a hundred more brands in the market, thanks to the Chinese, Korean, Taiwanese and Japanese manufacturers of mobile handsets.

What is more, the price ranges of mobile too have been considerably competitive. For instance, the features a Blackberry Smartphone can offer you at INR 20,000 will be available to you at a mere INR 5,000 all inclusive by Micromax mobile. That is how much the mobile market has evolved! And this is not all; mobile phones in the range of INR 100,000 are a rage for the rich and the famous!

It is no more a luxurious gadget to own; on the contrary, the costlier mobile you have the more savvy you are considered in your social circles. With the advent of social media networking, Windows mobile and 3G Handsets have become the talk of the town. Video conferencing is now taking over normal voice calling, and dedicated mobile messengers have taken over the ubiquitous Yahoo! Messenger. There are various mobile service providers, and the array of schemes they offer users is gargantuan. However, over the years it has been observed that CDMA services have lost out on their market share, and it is all about GSM mobiles now. Most mobile phones offered by China market are dual sim phones that allow you to use two sim cards at the same time; which means you can be present at more places than one all at the same time!

How much more can we expect the Telecommunication Industry to boom? Is there an end to this massive business? Can it get more humongous than this? Watch this space for more updates.

Facts About Pakistan Mobile Networks

Pakistan was created in 1948 after the British left the Indian Sub-continent. In 2010 the population is over 170 million making it the 6th most populated country in the world behind China, India, United States, Indonesia, and Brazil. The largest telecommunication company is the Pakistan Telecommunication Company also known as PTC that provides all the needs for local people and businesses.

In July 2010 the Pakistan increased the telecommunication tax which has resulted in prices for cheap calls to Pakistan having to be increased to 10 pence per minutes from UK. PTC now offers broadband services at a very cost effective rate.

Mobile Phone Networks in Pakistan include Ufone, Jazz also known as Mobilelink, Telenor Paktel Warid and SCO.

Ufone is by far the most popular one as it is operated by PTC. These days mobile plans include internet usage as well as the ability to check email on the go. Ufone has the best coverage across the whole of the country.

The second popular one is Mobilelink. They have great value call plans that enable even the poorest farmer to have a mobile in Pakistan.

The third one is Paktel now know as Zang as it is been taken over by a Chinese company.

All the mobile companies offer similar plans as they do in the UK. Plans now include SMS text messaging, voice mail, call forwarding and call waiting options. All these are additional extras. There are however website that offer Free SMS services to Ufone and Mobilelink mobile networks in Pakistan so this is another way to save money.

Travel to Taiwan

Taiwan is the first and the only democracy in China. You can see the future of China here. Taiwan is full of beautiful high mountains, with more than 100 peaks above 3,000 m elevation above the sea level. Taiwan is exciting, convenient, interesting and affordable.

Taiwan is also characterized by abundant rainfall and violent typhoon. It has an annual temperature of 22oC — the hottest month, July, averaging 27-28oC and the coldest month, January, 15oC — and an annual precipitation of over 2,000 mm. Taiwan is a country leading in technology use. This report covers trends and developments in telecommunications, mobile, Internet, broadband, digital TV and converging media including VoIP and IPTV developments. Taiwan is the world’s fourth largest IC maker globally, and the second after the United States in IC design. Taiwan is among the world leaders in the manufacture of PC Notebooks, TFT-LCD units, computer peripherals and mobile phones.

Taiwan is an exciting new surf location. Surfing has been here for only 8-10 years, so you can imagine the number of surf spots yet to be discovered, let alone surfed! Taiwan is now a creditor economy, holding the world’s fourth-largest stock of foreign exchange reserves ($261 billion as of August 2007). Although Taiwan enjoyed sustained economic growth, full employment, and low inflation for many years, in 2001, Taiwan joined other regional economies in its first recession since 1949. Taiwan is a free republic, a loyal American ally, a guarantor of civil liberties, and an engine of economic freedom. It does not deserve to be treated as an international pariah, or to be hastily shushed when it points out that it is China’s political equal, not a rebellious Chinese province.

Taiwan is a cross point of east and west culture, of continental and oceanic culture. The shape of Taiwan is like a long and narrow sweet potato from north to south. Taiwan is an important global power in its own right. It is now the world’s 16th largest economy,[4] the 10th largest trading power, and the third largest holder of foreign exchange reserves after China and Japan.[5] It has a larger population than Australia and a larger gross domestic product than any member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Taiwan is known for its eminent mountain features that span from the north to the south of the island. These hard rock mountains had developed from series of volcanic activities during the past centuries.

Taiwan is a small island country off the southeast coast of mainland China. Not usually regarded as a top tourist destination in Asia, Taiwan is nonetheless a fascinating blend of cultures from the region. Taiwan is among few developing countries that announced specific targets to reduce its greenhouse gases emissions. The country made a commitment to stabilize its CO2 emissions at year 2000 levels by the year 2020.This paper intends to explore what factors lead Taiwan to pursue or eschew the adoption of renewable energy policies in the transitions toward a sustainable energy system. Taiwan is dominated by the Central Range of mountains which runs north to south, with the tallest peak being nearly four thousand metres high. In the east the mountains reach close to the sea, and in the west there is a fertile coastal plain which extends far and wide.

Taiwan is a democratic nation that respects human rights, freedom, and peace. Taiwan meets all the requirements of UN membership. Taiwan is a democratic society based on respect for human rights, while China is controlled by a tyrannical regime that tramples on human rights. Taiwan is a peace-loving society that poses no threat to anyone. Taiwan is also working to ink a free trade agreement with the United States, especially now that South Korea has done so. The U.S.-South Korea free trade agreement has created a lot of anxiety in Taiwan because it is feared it will increase competition in exports to the United States.

Taiwan is not generally recognized as a sovereign country internationally and is therefore not considered eligible for membership in nonproliferation treaties or export control regimes. The United States has taken an ambivalent official stance on Taiwan’s status, recognizing neither the sovereignty of Taiwan nor the PRC’s claim to sovereignty over the island. Taiwan is America’s tenth-largest export market. Taiwan has Asia’s fifth-largest military and Asia’s second-largest merchant-marine fleet (after China’s). Taiwan is also famous for it’s many night markets and active temples, especially Snake Alley and the Lungshan Temple. If all the traveling wears you out, stop in at one of Taiwan’s many natural hot springs for some rest and relaxation.

Taiwan is important to us. We don’t want to wait forever. Taiwan is a steadily growing, medium-sized market for UK education. Taiwan is also hit by typhoons, usually from July to October. Travelers planning a trip to Taiwan can obtain general information about natural disaster preparedness on the Internet from the U.S.

Taiwan is special in having this population mix. What keeps them united then? Taiwan is a place in the making. Its a shaky place, but its an island with a future. Taiwan is an island located off the southeastern coast of China. Also known as Ilha Formosa, or beautiful island, Taiwan has been inhabited for over 10,000 years.

Taiwan is also widely known as Green Silicon Valley, a kingdom of manufacturing and high technical development in computer science. In the past 50 years, there are so many daily electronic components made in Taiwan and sold to the world. Taiwan is an especially attractive locale for recent graduates with student loans to pay and travelers looking to make a quick buck. There are several reasons for this.

Complying With UK & EU Country WEEE Electronic Recycling Directive

The objective of the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive 2002/96/EC is to minimize the environmental impact of electronic waste. The WEEE directive protects landfills and regulates the disposal of discarded or end-of-life electrical or electronic equipment (EEE) also known as e-waste. The related RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC strives to limit the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of electronic equipment.

The WEEE Directive provides guidelines for the collection, treatment, recycling and recovery of waste electrical and electronic equipment. The “polluter pays” principle means collection and recovery is largely at the manufacturer’s expense. Specified products include such things as large and small household appliances, IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment, IT and telecommunications equipment.

Reduction of hazardous material content in products at the manufacturing stage will reduce the content of such pollutants in electronic waste. This will enhance the economic feasibility of recycling. Hence RoHS compliance, which in any case is needed for doing business in the EU, is the first important element for any effective recycling. Increased efforts to design products that facilitate recycling of WEEE components and materials are extremely beneficial.

Recycling is one of several waste disposal options. Its effectiveness depends, to a large extent on the type of material to be recycled and the availability of appropriate technology. E-waste such as a computer can be discarded by the original users, but it may still be perfectly functional equipment. In this case material recovery and reuse is a better alternative than recycling. In fact the reuse of waste electrical and electronic equipment is the preferred economic option.

Recycling is technology and material specific. It is mandatory to collect electronic waste separately from municipal waste. While primary administrative responsibility lies with the state, manufacturers have an important role in educating customers on proper waste disposal. The WEEE directive mandates collection of electronic waste at the manufacturer’s cost. Manufacturers must not only ensure that convenient collection points are set up for consumers but must also make provisions for the transportation of the waste materials to the recycling plant.

The WEEE directive mandates that recycling sites should conform to certain minimum standards to prevent adverse environmental impact when treating waste EEE. In most cases, it will not be feasible for a single manufacturer to operate its own recycling center.

Throughout the WEEE recovery chain, producers are required to finance the cost of e-waste collection from consumers; transportation to the recycling center; treatment; recovery and disposal. Producers will generally need to collaborate with other manufacturers to collectively bear the cost for the recycling and waste disposal obligations.

The WEEE and the RoHS are here to stay and further strengthening of environmental regulations is inevitable. One such step is the impending Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH), regulations effective from June 1, 2007 in the European Union. The REACH regulation will control the use of a very wide range of chemicals and is not limited only to the electronics sector. In this increasingly difficult milieu, a proactive approach by producers to comply with the WEEE electronic recycling directive will surely give them dividends for increased competitiveness.

Fallen Billionaire Offers a Lens on Xi’s China

The arc of events since Xiao Jinhua’s disappearance from the Hong Kong Four Seasons suggests his trial isn’t purely a matter of law enforcement.
Billionaires who get on the wrong side of the law aren’t an easy object of sympathy. The trial of Xiao Jianhua merits attention, though, even if its subject may not be deserving. The circumstances and conduct of the case have ramifications that go beyond the fate of this one Chinese-Canadian tycoon who was once worth close to $6 billion.

Xiao went missing from Hong Kong’s Four Seasons Hotel in early 2017, with several media outlets reporting he had been abducted by Chinese security agents, who at the time weren’t allowed to operate in the city. There was no official word on his status until 2020, when Chinese regulators took over nine of his companies and Xiao’s Tomorrow Group confirmed he had returned to the mainland to cooperate with investigations. The Canadian embassy in Beijing said Monday that it was aware Xiao’s trial would take place and its representatives had been denied access. Authorities have said nothing and state media have been silent.

A Brief Rundown of Audio

The 3 Greatest Benefits to Audio Visual Communications

If you are a business person, then you will have to attend so many different kinds of conferences for your business. But the truth about conferences is that it is not simple to arrange. In this day and age, you can now have your conferences based online! This, of course, is only possible with audio visual communications. You can be sure that these audio visual communication services are really very beneficial to any and all conferences you now attend or make. For the rest of the article, we will now be talking about the benefits; here, we will mention the top 3 benefits. So these now are the greatest benefits that you will receive from audio visual communications.

You can be sure that convenience is one of the greatest benefits that anyone will receive from audio visual communications. It can be quite inconvenient to travel all the way for a conference again and again. But with audio visual communications, you can be sure that you can have the conference held wherever you are since it is a conference based online. So this is the first great benefit that audio visual communications can offer you.

With audio visual communications, everyone will get to hear everyone else because of the high-quality sound system. It can be quite stressful when you can hardly hear what the people are saying in your online conference because of the bad sound quality. With great sound quality, you won’t get into confusion about what someone else is saying, and no one will misunderstand what you are getting across; and this is what audio visual communications can offer you and all the online conferences that you have throughout the whole week. So the fact that audio visual communications offer a good sound system for everyone involved is the second great benefit that you will surely receive from it.

You can be sure that great visuals is yet another one of the greatest benefits that anyone will receive from audio visual communications. It can be hard to have an audio-only conference because you can easily get distracted with other things that you can actually see. But that is not something that you should worry about because, if you look at the name, you will find that audio visual communications also offers great visuals. Not only will you see the people in the conference, but you can share other things on your screen to make them understand your meaning more. So this is benefit number three that you will receive from audio visual communications.

3 Roofing Tips from Someone With Experience

Components to Contemplate When Employing a Roofing Firm

When carrying out a construction, the essential issues to look into is to be aware of the effective experts who will be in a position to deliver effectual roof for the constructed building as it is one of the final touches that need to be done while constructing. Since the quality of any building depends on the type of roofing that has been done, it is therefore essential that you ensure that this activity is carried out with the prudency it deserves. In order for you to see this through, it will be appropriate that you are totally prepared to carry out selection process of the right constructors to do your roofing. This will require you to consider the numerous aspects that will guide you in the right direction before coming up with the right firm.

It is necessary for you to be aware that the organization you want to give this task has put the necessary arrangements to protect itself and indemnify in case of any unfortunate incident occurring. It will be suitable if you have the certainty of the indemnity cover undertaken by the prospective service provider by affirming the authenticity of all the documents. This is important since you will not be liable for any unfortunate happening on the construction site. It is advisable that when hiring these constructors it is important that you look for one from your locality and whom you are aware of. This will allow you to go through their previous works in the area thus knowing the capability before considering them as constructer. A local will be easily available even after accomplishing the task because they will be there to rectify a mistake in case of any.

It is necessary that you hire a roofing company that charger favorable amount for the job, this should not result in hiring an incompetent individual to carry out the task. You should be knowledgeable on the current market rates regarding that particular job so that the constructor does not give you an exorbitant quotation. It is important that your potential roofing firm avail all the authentic documentation that will give you the confidence about their abilities and their level of skills.

You should always make it a routine to note down all the agreements that you enter into with the constructor for your future reference. It should also be your interest to be aware of the time period that the project will undertake and only accept if you are comfortable. When selecting the appropriate service provider, communication capability of the roof builder should be looked keenly to avoid sourcing for individuals who will fail to talk effectively leading to failure.